To have a better understanding of the present and look into the future, weneed to turn to history. Certainly, it is impossible to cover in this articleall the developments that have taken place over more than a thousand years. ButI will focus on the key, pivotal moments that are important for us to remember,both in Russia and Ukraine.
In essence, Ukraine's ruling circles decided to justify their country's independence through the denial of its past, however,except for border issues. They began to mythologize and rewrite history, editout everything that united us, and refer to the period when Ukraine was part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union as an occupation. The common tragedy of collectivization and famine of the early 1930s was portrayed as the genocide of the Ukrainian people.
The Kojiki is one of the two primary sources for Shinto, the Japanese national religion. It starts in the realm of myth, with the creation of Japan from foam. Innumerable gods and goddesses are described. The narrative moves from mythology to historical legends, and culminates in a chronology of the early Imperial line.
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The legitimacy of Native American sacred sites has been federally and locally established in the past with such legislation as the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA 1979), the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA 1990), Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA 2004), and California Senate Bill 18 (SB 18 2004). Despite these laws, nonnative governmental and private agents, who generally lack appreciation for Native American sacred sites, continue to appropriate, exploit, and destroy them by extensive development in both urban and exurban areas. In fact, studies have shown that belief in the sanctity of the land is linked to greater environmental awareness and concern, leading us to propose improved communication between natives and nonnatives in the hope of encouraging new ways of looking at the environment. The possible forms that such exchanges might take are discussed herein. However, due to some hitches in these laws and rampant urban growth and development, Native American sacred sites are being increasingly threatened with appropriation, exploitation, and destruction by nonnative agents, both governmental and private, who do not in general appreciate the significance of sacred sites to traditional cultures. Because belief in sacred places has been linked to greater environmental awareness and concern, we suggest that conveyance of the inherent sanctity of the land to those who do not share it might encourage a new way of looking at the environment--one that respects it and cares for it because of its innate, multicultural meaning. The question becomes: what form should this conveyance of belief take?
Belief in sacred places has been linked to greater ecoethicality by social science researchers Nalini Tarakeshwar and colleagues, who collaborated on a study identifying "specific religious and/or spiritual beliefs (i.e., beliefs that nature is sacred) that were predictive of pro-environmental beliefs and behaviors." (3) Although this study used a subject group of nonnative Presbyterians, the implications of its results seem clear: "Sanctifying nature could lead to greater care and investment in its protection." (4) Thus, it makes sense that Native American mythic narratives like those of the Chumash, Kumeyaay, and Mojave might provide an expression of the sacredness of places with the goal of protecting them. Because of these attributes, indigenous narratives hold promise for conveying the ecocultural value of places to the mostly nonindigenous urban planning and land development fields. 1e1e36bf2d